Energy Efficient Buildings with Solar and Geothermal ResourcesA modern and unique perspective on solar and geothermal technologies for heating and cooling buildings This book will have a broad appeal reaching practising engineers in the industry as well as students. With introductory sections for each technology described, material includes chapters on: geothermal energy use for the heating and cooling of buildings; a chapter on electrically driven heat pumps/chillers; material on night radiative cooling, photovoltaic thermal collectors, temperature modelling and thin film photovoltaic modelling. Includes general introductory sections for each technology with market potential and applications Covers an increasingly important component of energy courses Considers a broad range ...
Provides a systems approach to sustainable green energy production and contains analytical tools to aid in the design of renewable microgrids This book discusses the fundamental concepts of power grid integration on microgrids of green energy sources. In each chapter, the author presents a key engineering problem, and then formulates a mathematical model of the problem followed by a simulation testbed in MATLAB, highlighting solution steps. The book builds its foundation on design of distributed generating system, and design of PV generating plants by introducing design- efficient smart residential PV microgrids. These include energy monitoring systems, smart devices, building load estimation, load classification, and real-time pricing. The book presents basic concepts of phasor systems, three-phase systems, transformers, loads, DC/DC converters, DC/AC inverters, and AC/DC rectifiers, which are all integrated into the design of microgrids for renewable energy as part of bulk interconnected power grids. Other topics of discussion include the Newton formulation of power flow, the Newton—Raphson solution of a power flow problem, the fast decoupled solution for power flow studies, and short circuit calculations. Focuses on the utilization of DC/AC inverters as a three-terminal element of power systems for the integration of renewable energy sources Presents basic concepts of phasor systems, three-phase systems, transformers, loads, DC/DC converters, DC/AC inverters, and AC/DC rectifiers Contains problems at the end of each chapter Supplementary material includes a solutions manual and PowerPoint presentations for instructors Design of Smart Power Grid Renewable Energy Systems, Second Edition is a textbook for undergraduate and graduate students in electric power systems engineering, researchers, and industry professionals. ALI KEYHANI, Ph.D., is a Professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at The Ohio State University. He is a Fellow of the IEEE and a recipient of The Ohio State University, College of Engineering Research Award for 1989, 1999, and 2003. He has worked for Columbus and Southern Electric Power Company, Hewlett-Packard Co., Foster Wheeler Engineering, and TRW. He has performed research and consulting for American Electric Power, TRW Control, Liebert, Delphi Automotive Systems, General Electric, General Motors, and Ford. Dr. Keyhani has authored many articles in IEEE Transactions in energy conversion, power electronics, and power systems engineering.
Algal Biofuels Guide: Renewable Energy from Algae, Macroalgae (Seaweed), Cyanobacteria, Feedstocks, Cultivation, Harvesting, Extraction, Conversion, Distribution and Utilization
Algal biomass is a fast-growing, renewable resource and a promising feedstock for advanced biofuels. Algal biofuels are generating considerable interest around the world. In the United States, they represent promising pathways for helping to meet the biofuel production targets set by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Algae are a diverse group of primarily aquatic organisms that are capable of using photosynthesis to generate biomass. Some algal strains are able to double their mass several times per day. In some cases, more than half of that mass consists of lipids or tricylglycerides. These bio-oils can be used to produce drop-in replacements for diesel, gasoline, and aviation fuels. Some algae accumulate carbohydrates (including starch), which can also be used to form intermediates for processing into biofuels. Proteins from the residual biomass could provide supplemental feed for livestock and aquaculture operations.Advantages of Algal Feedstocks * A History of Domestic Algal Biofuels Development * Early Work to 1996 * Research from 1996 to Present * Algae-to-Biofuels: Opportunity and Challenges Today * Technology and Analysis Challenges * Regulations and Standards * Public-Private Partnerships * References * Algal Biology * Strain Isolation, Screening and Selection * Isolation and Characterization of Naturally Occurring Algae * Role of Culture Collections as National Algae Data Resource Centers * Selecting Algal Model Systems for Study * Algal Physiology and Biochemistry * Photosynthesis and Light Utilization * Carbon Partitioning and Metabolism * Algal Carbohydrates * Lipid Synthesis and Regulation. * Biohydrogen * Algal Biotechnology * The Genetic Toolbox * Enabling Technologies: "Omics" Approaches and Bioinformatics * Applications of Biotechnology to Algal Bioenergy * Considerations of Genetic Modifications * References * Algal Cultivation * Cultivation Pathways * Microalgae and Cyanobacteria * Macroalgae * Scale-Up Challenges * Stability of Large-Scale Cultures * System Productivity * Nutrient Sources, Sustainability, and Management * Water Management, Conservation, and Recycling * Downstream Processing: Harvesting and Dewatering * Approaches for Microalgae * Harvesting * Drying * Approaches for Macroalgae * Harvesting * Preprocessing * Systems Engineering * References * Preliminary Look at Energy Balance * Extraction of Products from Algae * Current Practices for Lipid Extraction * Mechanical Disruption (i.e., Cell Rupture) * Organic Co-solvent Mixtures * Accelerated Solvent Extraction * Selective Extraction * Subcritical Water Extraction * Supercritical Fluid Extraction * Heterotrophic Production * Challenges * References * Algal Biofuel Conversion Technologies * Direct Production of Biofuels from Algae * Alcohols Alkanes * Hydrogen * Processing of Whole Algae * Pyrolysis * Gasification * Liquefaction * Supercritical Processing * Anaerobic Digestion of Whole Algae * Conversion of Algal Extracts * Chemical Transesterification * Biochemical (Enzymatic) Conversion. * Catalytic Cracking * Conversion to Renewable Diesel, Gasoline, and Jet Fuel * Processing of Algal Remnants after Extraction * References * Co-products * Commercial Products from Microalgae and Cyanobacteria * Commercial Products from Macroalgae * Potential Options for the Recovery of Co-products * References * Distribution and Utilization * Distribution * Utilization * Algal Blendstocks to Replace Middle-Distillate Petroleum Products * Algal Blendstocks for Alcohol and Gasoline-Range Petroleum Products * References * Resources and Siting * Resource Requirements for Different Cultivation Approaches * Photoautotrophic Microalgae Approach * Heterotrophic Microalgae Approach * Photoautotrophic Macroalgae Approach * Resources Overview * Climate * Water * Carbon Dioxide * Land * Integration with Water Treatment Facilities * Wastewater Treatment and Recycling Applications * Algae Production Techniques for Wastewater Treatment Plants