Energy Storage Devices for Electronic Systems: Rechargeable Batteries and SupercapacitorsEnergy storage devices are a crucial area of research and development across many engineering disciplines and industries. While batteries provide the significant advantage of high energy density, their limited life cycles, disposal challenges and charge and discharge management constraints undercut their effectiveness in certain applications. Compared to electrochemical cells, supercapacitors are charge-storage devices with much longer life cycles, yet they have traditionally been hobbled by limited DC voltage capabilities and energy density. However, recent advances are improving these issues. This book provides the opportunity to expand your knowledge of innovative supercapacitor applications, comparing them to other commonly used energy ...
This title includes a number of Open Access chapters. The world's interest in reducing petroleum use has led to the rapid development of the biofuel industry over the past decade or so. However, there is increasing concern over how current food-based biofuels affect both food security and the environment. Second-generation biofuels, however, use widely available sources such as non-food lignocellulosic-based biomass and fats, oils, and greases. They make practical consideration of how land use can simultaneously support both the world's food needs and some of its energy needs. This volume consolidates some of the most recent investigations into these issues. The chapters focus on these categories of research: The problems currently connected with biofuels relating to land use and the environment Investigations into the potential for land use to be managed more effectively and sustainably Research that focuses on new and developing options for second-generation biofuels This volume is recommended for all biofuel researchers, from the PhD student to the experienced scientist. It also offers an essential foundation to anyone interested in how biofuels relate to the future of our world.
The recent rise to prominence of renewable energy and energy efficiency has been driven by their potential to lower the environmental impacts of energy use. As these technologies mature they must demonstrate not only their environmental benefits, but also their economic competitiveness. The relative costs and benefits of each potential project, whether large or small, must be systematically modelled and assessed before they can be financed and implemented.Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: Assessment of Projects and Policies deals with the appraisal of such projects against financial and non-financial criteria, illustrating the assessment tools necessary to make appropriate, evidence based decisions as efficiently as possible. The most important technologies are first described, stressing their economic and performance characteristics. Key project appraisal concepts are then introduced, approaches to modelling the cash flows in energy projects are described, and the issues of uncertainty and optimisation are fully discussed. These financial concepts, together with methods for estimating greenhouse gas emissions, are extended to address aspects of energy policy. Illustrated with many case studies this is an ideal introduction to financial and non-financial appraisal techniques as applied to energy efficient and renewable energy technologies.