Provides simplified MATLAB codes for analysis of photovoltaic systems, describes the model of the whole photovoltaic power system, and shows readers how to build these models line by line. This book presents simplified coded models for photovoltaic (PV) based systems using MATLAB to help readers understand the dynamic behavior of these systems. Through the use of MATLAB, the reader has the ability to modify system configuration, parameters and optimization criteria. Topics covered include energy sources, storage, and power electronic devices. This book contains six chapters that cover systems’ components from the solar source to the end-user. Chapter 1 discusses modelling of the solar source, and Chapter 2 discusses modelling of the photovoltaic source. Chapter 3 focuses on modeling of PV systems’ power electronic features and auxiliary power sources. Modeling of PV systems’ energy flow is examined in Chapter 4, while Chapter 5 discusses PV systems in electrical power systems. Chapter 6 presents an application of PV system models in systems’ size optimization. Common control methodologies applied to these systems are also modeled. Covers the basic models of the whole photovoltaic power system, enabling the reader modify the models to provide different sizing and control methodologies Examines auxiliary components to photovoltaic systems, including wind turbines, diesel generators, and pumps Contains examples, drills and codes Modeling of Photovoltaic Systems Using MATLAB: Simplified Green Codes is a reference forresearchers, students, and engineers who work in the field of renewable energy, and specifically in photovoltaic systems.
Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems: An Introduction to Theory, Modeling with MATLAB/SIMULINK, and the Role of Soft Computing Techniques (Green Energy and Technology)
This textbook starts with a review of the principles of operation, modeling and control of common solar energy and wind-power generation systems before moving on to discuss grid compatibility, power quality issues and hybrid models of Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). MATLAB/SIMULINK models of fuel cell technology and associated converters are discussed in detail. The impact of soft computing techniques such as neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms in the context of solar and wind energy is explained with practical implementation using MATLAB/SIMULINK models.This book is intended for final year undergraduate, post-graduate and research students interested in understanding the modeling and control of Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems based on MATLAB/SIMULINK.- Each chapter includes “Learning Objectives” at the start, a “Summary” at the end and helpful Review Questions- Includes MATLAB/SIMULINK models of different control strategies for power conditioning units in the context of Solar PV- Presents soft computing techniques for Solar PV and WECS, as well as MATLAB/SIMULINK models, e.g. for wind turbine topologies and grid integration- Covers hybrid solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems with converters and MATLAB/SIMULINK models- Reviews harmonic reduction in Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems in connection with power quality issues- Covers fuel cells and converters with implementation using MATLAB/SIMULINK
The content of the Work is aimed at the topical issue - integration of increasing infeed of wind power into a power system, in particular its impact on the transmission networks and electricity market. In power system development horizons where forward-looking planning tasks are formed, proper instruments that are able to assess those impacts in progressive stages, comprehensive understanding of the impacts on the entire system operation, electricity markets as well as generating and transmission infrastructural requirements are indispensable for proper decisions of policy makers and planners. The main part therefore focuses on methods and elaboration of approaches for bulk wind power production modelling and simulation primarily intended for infrastructural planning purposes, while technical/economic as well as regulatory aspects of the environment are taken into consideration. The research is carried out within the framework of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA), Joint Research Programme on Smart Grids, Transmission Planning with the main target focusing on R&D of the next generation of smart grid technologies and system development.
This book will be focused on the modeling and control of the DFIM based wind turbines. In the first part of the book, the mathematical description of different basic dynamic models of the DFIM will be carried out. It will be accompanied by a detailed steady-state analysis of the machine. After that, a more sophisticated model of the machine that considers grid disturbances, such as voltage dips and unbalances will be also studied. The second part of the book surveys the most relevant control strategies used for the DFIM when it operates at the wind energy generation application. The control techniques studied, range from standard solutions used by wind turbine manufacturers, to the last developments oriented to improve the behavior of high power wind turbines, as well as control and hardware based solutions to address different faulty scenarios of the grid. In addition, the standalone DFIM generation system will be also analyzed.
Wind Energy: An Introduction covers wind energy system types, operation, modeling, analysis, integration, and control. Beginning with a history of the development of wind energy, this comprehensive book: Explains the aerodynamic theories that govern the operation of wind turbines Presents wind energy statistics to address the stochastic nature of wind speed Employs the statistical modeling of wind speed to evaluate sites for wind energy generation Highlights the differences between the most common types of wind turbines Analyzes the main power electronic circuits used in wind energy Details the induction, synchronous, and permanent magnet generators from the basic principle of induced voltage to the steady-state and dynamic models Explores the operation, stability, control, and protection of type 1, 2, 3, and 4 wind turbines Discusses the main integration challenges of wind energy systems with electric utility systems Features numerous models, illustrations, real-world examples, and exercise problems Includes a solutions manual and figure slides with qualifying course adoption Wind Energy: An Introduction requires a basic knowledge of electric circuit theory, making it an ideal text for students at the senior-undergraduate and graduate levels. In addition, the book provides practicing engineers with a handy professional reference.
This compelling saga recounts the human effort to capture the power of the wind for electricity--from the first European windmills, to nineteenth century experiments in rural electrification, to the immense wind farms in California and the plains states that feed power grid today.Environmental historian Robert W. Righter describes eccentric inventors and techinical innovations, analyzes the politics of the power industry, past and present, and demonstrates that individuals and small businesses have made the greatest contributions to wind-energy development. Wind Energy in America also focuses on contemporary developments, including U.S. government research and regulation and the international race for dominance in the wind-turbine business. Righter explores the arguments of people and organizations opposed to the spread of wind generators--often the same environmental groups, paradoxically, that hailed wind energy as a savior in the late 1970s.This abundantly illustrated history, free of ideology and cant, will be of lasting interest to environmentalists, scholars, and all readers alert to the need for alternatives to coal and oil.
Unlike conventional power plants, wind plants emit no air pollutants or greenhouse gases―and wind energy is a free, renewable resource. However, the induction machines commonly used as wind generators have stability problems similar to the transient stability of synchronous machines. To minimize power, frequency, and voltage fluctuations caused by network faults or random wind speed variations, control mechanisms are necessary. Wind Energy Systems: Solutions for Power Quality and Stabilization clearly explains how to solve stability and power quality issues of wind generator systems. Covering fundamental concepts of wind energy conversion systems, the book discusses several means to enhance the transient stability of wind generator systems. It also explains the methodologies for minimizing fluctuations of power, frequency, and voltage. Topics covered include: An overview of wind energy and wind energy conversion systems Fundamentals of electric machines and power electronics Types of wind generator systems Challenges in integrating wind power into electricity grids Solutions for power quality problems Methods for improving transient stability during network faults Methods for minimizing power fluctuations of variable-speed wind generator systems This accessible book helps researchers and engineers understand the relative effectiveness of each method and select a suitable tool for wind generator stabilization. It also offers students an introduction to wind energy conversion systems, providing insights into important grid integration and stability issues.
This book describes the design and field experimentation of real-world multi-megawatt wind turbines and their control systems. It introduces the main topics of modern wind turbine design and control, including (1) the description of classical and advanced turbines, (2) dynamic modeling, (3) control objectives and strategies, (4) standards and certification, (5) controller design, and (6) a large number of applications like onshore and offshore wind turbines, floating wind turbines, airborne wind energy systems, advanced manufacturing and real experimentation. The book also presents the main concepts of the QFT robust control engineering technique in such a manner that students and practicing engineers can readily grasp the fundamentals and appreciate its transparency in bridging the gap between theory and the real world. It addresses state-of-the-art of QFT methods to design control systems for multi-input multi-output applications, distributed parameter systems, and a hybrid methodology to design non-linear robust control systems able to go beyond the classical linear limitations. The book presents many examples and projects with the QFT Control Toolbox (or QFTCT) for Matlab developed by Prof. Garcia-Sanz (See also the website codypower.com).
Examines the possible societal impacts of wind energy projects and explains the potential issues faced when siting, constructing, and operating a wind energy project. This book begins with a history of wind power and the social impacts of both electricity and wind power from a historical perspective, a discussion of basic electrical terms, and a primer on the conversion of power in the wind to electricity. Much of the second half of the book is devoted to comparing wind energy to other forms of electric generation, both renewable and non-renewable sources. In order to have a true understanding of the impact of wind energy on society, one also has to have a thorough understanding of the impacts that other sources of electric generation have, such as fossil-fuelled plants or nuclear power plants. The comparison of electric generation sources includes a review of how such sources are typically utilized within the electric system, as well as the economic factors and environmental considerations that affect which resources utilities or operators of electric grids have to take into account. The authors conclude with a discussion of energy policies in the U.S., individual states, and foreign nations, how these policies influence the use of renewable energy, and what our future may hold in terms of energy supply and demand. Some highlights of this book are: Discusses the wind energy impacts on the environment, local economy, electric utilities, individuals and communities Provides a visual explanation of wind energy principles through tables, graphs, maps, illustrations and photographs Offers a comprehensive overview of the issues associated with the creation and use of wind energy Models chapters around an existing university curriculum Spanning the broad range of environmental, financial, policy and other topics that define and determine the relationships between wind energy technology and our energy-dependent society, Wind Energy Essentials is a resource for students, universities, and the entire wind energy industry.
A highly accessible and authoritative account of wind energy’s scientific background, current technology, and international status, with an emphasis on large turbines and wind farms, both onshore and offshore Topics covered include: a brief history of wind energy the nature of the wind turbine aerodynamics, mechanics, and electrics wind farms offshore opportunities and challenges grid integration of wind energy economic and environmental aspects Whilst intellectually rigorous, this is not an academic treatise. Key equations are fully discussed, providing essential theoretical background. The text is supported by copious illustrations and about 50 inspiring full-colour photographs from around the world. This book is aimed at a wide readership including professionals, policy makers and employees in the energy sector in need of a basic appreciation of the underlying principles of wind energy or a quick update. Its style and level will also appeal to second and third year undergraduate and postgraduate students of renewable and wind energy, energy systems and electrical/electronic engineering. It also gives a concise account of the technology for the large and growing number of people who are interested in onshore and offshore wind farms and the contribution they are making to carbon-free electricity generation in the 21st century.
Wind Turbines addresses all those professionally involved in research, development, manufacture and operation of wind turbines. It provides a cross-disciplinary overview of modern wind turbine technology and an orientation in the associated technical, economic and environmental fields. It is based on the author's experience gained over decades designing wind energy converters with a major industrial manufacturer and, more recently, in technical consulting and in the planning of large wind park installations, with special attention to economics. The second edition accounts for the emerging concerns over increasing numbers of installed wind turbines. In particular, an important new chapter has been added which deals with offshore wind utilisation. All advanced chapters have been extensively revised and in some cases considerably extended
As the energy sector shifts and changes to focus on renewable technologies, the optimization of wind power becomes a key practical issue. Reactive Power Management of Power Networks with Wind Generation brings into focus the development and application of advanced optimization techniques to the study, characterization, and assessment of voltage stability in power systems. Recent advances on reactive power management are reviewed with particular emphasis on the analysis and control of wind energy conversion systems and FACTS devices. Following an introduction, distinct chapters cover the 5 key areas of FACTS devices, voltage stability, wind generators, reactive power optimization and management. These are supported with applications and example including real-life data from the Spanish Power system. Together with power system engineers, operators and planners will also benefit from this insightful resource. Reactive Power Management of Power Networks with Wind Generation provides a key reference to advanced undergraduate and graduate students in electrical and power engineering.
Wind power plants teaches the physical foundations of usage of Wind Power. It includes the areas like Construction of Wind Power Plants, Design, Development of Production Series, Control, and discusses the dynamic forces acting on the systems as well as the power conversion and its connection to the distribution system. The book is written for graduate students, practitioners and inquisitive readers of any kind. It is based on lectures held at several universities. Its German version it already is the standard text book for courses on Wind Energy Engineering but serves also as reference for practising engineers.
Grid Integration and Dynamic Impact of Wind Energy details the integration of wind energy resources to the electric grid worldwide. Authors Vijay Vittal and Raja Ayyanar include detailed coverage of the power converters and control used in interfacing electric machines and power converters used in wind generators, and extensive descriptions of power systems operation and control to accommodate large penetration of wind resources.Key concepts will be illustrated through extensive power electronics and power systems simulations using software like MATLAB, Simulink and PLECS. The book addresses real world problems and solutions in the area of grid integration of wind resources, and will be a valuable resource for engineers and researchers working in renewable energy and power.
Along with the rising energy demand in the 21st century and the growing recognition of global warming and environmental pollution, energy supply has become an integral and cross cutting element of every country's economy. In recent years, more and more countries have prioritized sustainable, renewable, and clean energy sources such as wind, solar, hydropower, biomass, etc., as the replacements for fossil fuels. Wind power is the fastest growing alternative energy segment, providing an attractive cost structure relative to other alternative energy. Wind energy has played a significant role in North American and European countries, and some developing countries such as China and India. In 2008, over 27 GW of new wind capacity were installed over the world. There is no doubt that wind power will play a major role as the world moves towards a sustainable energy future. This book provides engineers and researchers in both the wind power industry and energy research community with comprehensive, up-to-date, and advanced design techniques and practical approaches. The topics addressed in this book involve the major concerns in the wind power generation and wind turbine design, and include the more recent developments in wind power generation. This book is a useful and timely contribution to the wind technical community and suitable as a textbook for both undergraduate and graduate students.
Energy: Wind: The History of Wind Energy, Electricity Generation from the Wind, Types of Wind Turbines, Wind Energy Potential,
Since early recorded history, people have been harnessing the energy of the wind. In the United States in the late 19th century, settlers began using windmills to pump water for farms and ranches, and later, to generate electricity for homes and industry. Industrialism led to a gradual decline in the use of windmills. The steam engine replaced European water-pumping windmills, and in the 1930s, the Rural Electrification Administration's programs brought inexpensive electric power to most rural areas in the US. However, industrialization also sparked the development of larger windmills, wind turbines, to generate electricity. After experiencing strong growth in the mid-1980s, the U.S. wind industry hit a plateau during the electricity restructuring period in the 1990s and then regained momentum in 1999. Industry growth has since responded positively to policy incentives. Although wind power currently provides only about 1% of U.S. electricity needs, it is growing more rapidly than any other energy source. Wind power has negligible fuel costs, but high capital costs. The estimated average cost per unit incorporates the cost of construction of the turbine and transmission facilities, borrowed funds, return to investors (including cost of risk), estimated annual production, and other components, averaged over the projected useful life of the equipment, which may be in excess of twenty years. Modern wind turbines fall into two basic groups: the horizontal-axis variety and the vertical-axis design. Utility-scale turbines range in size from 100 kilowatts to as large as several megawatts. Larger turbines are grouped together into wind farms which provide bulk power to the electrical grid. Single small turbines (below 100 kilowatts) are used for homes, telecommunications dishes, or water pumping. Small turbines are sometimes used in connection with diesel generators, batteries, and photovoltaic systems. These systems are called hybrid wind systems and are typically used in remote, off-grid locations where a connection to the utility grid is not available. A key challenge for wind energy is that electricity production depends on when winds blow rather than when consumers need power. Wind's variability can create added expenses and complexity in balancing supply and demand on the grid. Recent studies imply that these integration costs do not become significant (5%-10% of wholesale prices) until wind turbines account for 15%-30% of the capacity in a given control area. Opposition to wind power arises for environmental, aesthetic, or aviation security reasons. New public-private partnerships have been established to address more comprehensively problems with avian (bird and bat) deaths resulting from wind farms. Some stakeholders oppose the construction of wind plants for visual reasons, especially in pristine or highly-valued areas. Wind technology has improved significantly over the past two decades, and wind energy has become increasingly competitive with other power generation options. Federal wind power policy has centered primarily on the production tax credit (PTC), a business incentive to operate wind facilities. The PTC was extended through 2013. While wind energy still depends on federal tax incentives to compete, key uncertainties like climate policy, fossil fuel prices, and technology progress could dominate future cost competitiveness. Full Table of Contents, Sample Sections, and additional resources are available on the book's web site: www.TCNWind.com
Among renewable sources wind power systems have developed to prominent s- pliers of electrical energy. Since the 1980s they have seen an exponential increase, both in unit power ratings and overall capacity. While most of the systems are found on dry land, preferably in coastal regions, off-shore wind parks are expected to add signi?cantly to wind energy conversion in the future. The theory of modern wind turbines has not been established before the 20th century. Currently wind turbines with three blades and horizontal shaft prevail. The drivenelectricgeneratorsareoftheasynchronousorsynchronoustype,withorwi- out interposed gearbox. Modern systems are designed for variable speed operation which make power electronic devices play an important part in wind energy conv- sion. Manufacturing has reached the state of a high-tech industry. Countries prominent for the amount of installed wind turbine systems feeding into the grid are in Europe Denmark, Germany and Spain. Outside Europe it is the United States of America and India who stand out with large rates of increase. The market and the degree of contribution to the energy consumption in a country has been strongly in?uenced by National support schemes, such as guaranteed feed-in tariffs or tax credits. Due to the personal background of the author, the view is mainly directed on Europe, and many examples are taken from the German scene. However, the sit- tion in other continents, especially North America and Asia is also considered.
“The essential training manual for anyone who expects to profi tably engage the energy market while avoiding the devils lurking in the details.”Kurt Yeager, former President and CEO of the Electric Power Research Institute and coauthor of Perfect Power Shrinking fossil fuel supplies, volatile prices, deregulation, and environmental conservation have transformed the energy market into a major arena for making money. In response, an unprecedented amount of capital and investment manpower has fl ooded into the energy market. Older utilities are finding that their quiet, safe business has changed dramatically in a short period of time. Now, Energy Trading and Investing provides a big-picture introduction to the industry along with the trading know-how and fi nancial details that every market participant needs for success. This hands-on guidebook covers all types of energy markets―from the big-three markets of electricity, natural gas, and oil to the growing markets for liquefied natural gas, emissions, and alternative energy. It provides useful information on the interdependence of the different energy markets, who the major players are, and how Wall Street trades energy products. Energy Trading and Investing features: An overview of the entire energy market In-depth descriptions of all of the major energy commodities Financially oriented discussions of how chemistry, physics, accounting, and option pricing affect trading Primers on load forecasting, tolling agreements, natural gas storage, and more A practical introduction to risk management Written by a pioneering quant in the energy market, Energy Trading and Investing provides a highly disciplined and organized approach to profi ting from energy investments. This potent combination of detailed, up-to-date information alongside expert know-how thoroughly prepares you to invest and trade with confi dence in the energy market. If you’re a serious trader, you need to understand the energy markets, and Energy Trading and Investing is the only book you need to trade successfully in this growing sector.