Among renewable sources wind power systems have developed to prominent s- pliers of electrical energy. Since the 1980s they have seen an exponential increase, both in unit power ratings and overall capacity. While most of the systems are found on dry land, preferably in coastal regions, off-shore wind parks are expected to add signi?cantly to wind energy conversion in the future. The theory of modern wind turbines has not been established before the 20th century. Currently wind turbines with three blades and horizontal shaft prevail. The drivenelectricgeneratorsareoftheasynchronousorsynchronoustype,withorwi- out interposed gearbox. Modern systems are designed for variable speed operation which make power electronic devices play an important part in wind energy conv- sion. Manufacturing has reached the state of a high-tech industry. Countries prominent for the amount of installed wind turbine systems feeding into the grid are in Europe Denmark, Germany and Spain. Outside Europe it is the United States of America and India who stand out with large rates of increase. The market and the degree of contribution to the energy consumption in a country has been strongly in?uenced by National support schemes, such as guaranteed feed-in tariffs or tax credits. Due to the personal background of the author, the view is mainly directed on Europe, and many examples are taken from the German scene. However, the sit- tion in other continents, especially North America and Asia is also considered.
Examines the possible societal impacts of wind energy projects and explains the potential issues faced when siting, constructing, and operating a wind energy project. This book begins with a history of wind power and the social impacts of both electricity and wind power from a historical perspective, a discussion of basic electrical terms, and a primer on the conversion of power in the wind to electricity. Much of the second half of the book is devoted to comparing wind energy to other forms of electric generation, both renewable and non-renewable sources. In order to have a true understanding of the impact of wind energy on society, one also has to have a thorough understanding of the impacts that other sources of electric generation have, such as fossil-fuelled plants or nuclear power plants. The comparison of electric generation sources includes a review of how such sources are typically utilized within the electric system, as well as the economic factors and environmental considerations that affect which resources utilities or operators of electric grids have to take into account. The authors conclude with a discussion of energy policies in the U.S., individual states, and foreign nations, how these policies influence the use of renewable energy, and what our future may hold in terms of energy supply and demand. Some highlights of this book are: Discusses the wind energy impacts on the environment, local economy, electric utilities, individuals and communities Provides a visual explanation of wind energy principles through tables, graphs, maps, illustrations and photographs Offers a comprehensive overview of the issues associated with the creation and use of wind energy Models chapters around an existing university curriculum Spanning the broad range of environmental, financial, policy and other topics that define and determine the relationships between wind energy technology and our energy-dependent society, Wind Energy Essentials is a resource for students, universities, and the entire wind energy industry.
With increasing concern over climate change and the security of energy supplies, wind power is emerging as an important source of electrical energy throughout the world. Modern wind turbines use advanced power electronics to provide efficient generator control and to ensure compatible operation with the power system. Wind Energy Generation describes the fundamental principles and modelling of the electrical generator and power electronic systems used in large wind turbines. It also discusses how they interact with the power system and the influence of wind turbines on power system operation and stability. Key features: Includes a comprehensive account of power electronic equipment used in wind turbines and for their grid connection. Describes enabling technologies which facilitate the connection of large-scale onshore and offshore wind farms. Provides detailed modelling and control of wind turbine systems. Shows a number of simulations and case studies which explain the dynamic interaction between wind power and conventional generation.
The Renewable Energy Home Handbook: Insulation & energy saving, Living off-grid, Bio-mass heating, Wind turbines, Solar electric PV generation, Solar water heating, Heat pumps, & more
The Renewable Energy Home Handbook is biased towards the practical, and covers the installation of all leading types of alternative domestic energy sources - from ground- and air-source heat pumps, PV solar electricity generation and solar water heating, to bio-mass domestic heating systems and wind turbines. Discussing the pros and cons of each technology, it also provides you with a clear overview of what's genuinely required and the benefits to be gained from each system.The author, Lindsay Porter, is best known for his books on motor vehicle technology, making car mechanics and body repairs easy to understand and carry out. But alternative energy and conservation have long been a passion for him and his wife, Shan, so this manual is very much a labour of love. Here, Lindsay applies his commitment to making difficult subjects easy for everyone to understand to the money-saving - planet-saving - systems we can apply to our homes.
Best practices for the design and operation of energy systems Written by a global expert with 50 years of experience in the field, Energy Systems Design and Operation presents a formal, unified, and universal method for conceiving, designing, and operating the most appropriate energy system in any given situation. This authoritative guide describes how to express the scientific, technical, and economic parameters of an energy system in universal terms, and then reliably conduct its engineering and evaluation in those terms. The book also includes the algorithm and functional specification of the computer program for the unified method, application techniques, and software examples with source code. Learn how to: Develop a plan for adopting a unified method for energy systems Gather and process required information Formalize a procedure for the conversion, exchange, and storage of energy Extend the formal procedure to a unified method for the concept, design, and operation of energy systems Meet requirements for computing with a unified method Use and benefit from a unified method with real-world demonstrations of energy system operation and design Simulate and optimize energy systems with the unified method
Energy: Wind: The History of Wind Energy, Electricity Generation from the Wind, Types of Wind Turbines, Wind Energy Potential,
Since early recorded history, people have been harnessing the energy of the wind. In the United States in the late 19th century, settlers began using windmills to pump water for farms and ranches, and later, to generate electricity for homes and industry. Industrialism led to a gradual decline in the use of windmills. The steam engine replaced European water-pumping windmills, and in the 1930s, the Rural Electrification Administration's programs brought inexpensive electric power to most rural areas in the US. However, industrialization also sparked the development of larger windmills, wind turbines, to generate electricity. After experiencing strong growth in the mid-1980s, the U.S. wind industry hit a plateau during the electricity restructuring period in the 1990s and then regained momentum in 1999. Industry growth has since responded positively to policy incentives. Although wind power currently provides only about 1% of U.S. electricity needs, it is growing more rapidly than any other energy source. Wind power has negligible fuel costs, but high capital costs. The estimated average cost per unit incorporates the cost of construction of the turbine and transmission facilities, borrowed funds, return to investors (including cost of risk), estimated annual production, and other components, averaged over the projected useful life of the equipment, which may be in excess of twenty years. Modern wind turbines fall into two basic groups: the horizontal-axis variety and the vertical-axis design. Utility-scale turbines range in size from 100 kilowatts to as large as several megawatts. Larger turbines are grouped together into wind farms which provide bulk power to the electrical grid. Single small turbines (below 100 kilowatts) are used for homes, telecommunications dishes, or water pumping. Small turbines are sometimes used in connection with diesel generators, batteries, and photovoltaic systems. These systems are called hybrid wind systems and are typically used in remote, off-grid locations where a connection to the utility grid is not available. A key challenge for wind energy is that electricity production depends on when winds blow rather than when consumers need power. Wind's variability can create added expenses and complexity in balancing supply and demand on the grid. Recent studies imply that these integration costs do not become significant (5%-10% of wholesale prices) until wind turbines account for 15%-30% of the capacity in a given control area. Opposition to wind power arises for environmental, aesthetic, or aviation security reasons. New public-private partnerships have been established to address more comprehensively problems with avian (bird and bat) deaths resulting from wind farms. Some stakeholders oppose the construction of wind plants for visual reasons, especially in pristine or highly-valued areas. Wind technology has improved significantly over the past two decades, and wind energy has become increasingly competitive with other power generation options. Federal wind power policy has centered primarily on the production tax credit (PTC), a business incentive to operate wind facilities. The PTC was extended through 2013. While wind energy still depends on federal tax incentives to compete, key uncertainties like climate policy, fossil fuel prices, and technology progress could dominate future cost competitiveness. Full Table of Contents, Sample Sections, and additional resources are available on the book's web site: www.TCNWind.com
Due to the mounting demand for energy and increasing population of the world, switching from nonrenewable fossil fuels to other energy sources is not an option―it is a necessity. Focusing on a cost-effective option for the generation of electricity, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment covers all facets of wind energy and wind turbines. The book begins by outlining the history of wind energy, before providing reasons to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy. After examining the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, and turbulence, it discusses the measurement and siting of individual wind turbines and wind farms. The text then presents the aerodynamics, operation, control, applications, and types of wind turbines. The author also describes the design of wind turbines and system performance for single wind turbines, water pumping, village systems, and wind farms. In addition, he explores the wind industry from its inception in the 1970s to today as well as the political and economic factors regarding the adoption of wind as an energy source. Since energy cannot be created nor destroyed―only transformed to another form―we are not encountering an energy crisis. Rather, we face an energy dilemma in the use of finite energy resources and their effects on the environment, primarily due to the burning of fossil fuels. Wind Energy explores one of the most economical solutions to alleviate our energy problems.
The stage is Judevine, an imaginary town in northern Vermont. This is a small stage, sometimes cold and darkened, but filled with characters so finely etched that they stand out as clearly as steeples against the sky. David Budbill plunges into the soul of New England to find characters and stories with lessons for anyone wanting to find the intrinsic nature of the region that has been called "all of America's backyard." These dark, lyrical, funny narrative poems portray the hopes and joys, pains and despair of people who have been bypassed or bruised by the twentieth century. Budbill has written a song of the down-and-out or overlooked, a song of the unsung. This anthem of the rural renaissance is microcosmic in setting, but universal in scope.
This book provides a state-of-the-art review of floating offshore wind turbines (FOWT). It offers developers a global perspective on floating offshore wind energy conversion technology, documenting the key challenges and practical solutions that this new industry has found to date. Drawing on a wide network of experts, it reviews the conception, early design stages, load & structural analysis and the construction of FOWT. It also presents and discusses data from pioneering projects. Written by experienced professionals from a mix of academia and industry, the content is both practical and visionary. As one of the first titles dedicated to FOWT, it is a must-have for anyone interested in offshore renewable energy conversion technologies.
The content of the Work is aimed at the topical issue - integration of increasing infeed of wind power into a power system, in particular its impact on the transmission networks and electricity market. In power system development horizons where forward-looking planning tasks are formed, proper instruments that are able to assess those impacts in progressive stages, comprehensive understanding of the impacts on the entire system operation, electricity markets as well as generating and transmission infrastructural requirements are indispensable for proper decisions of policy makers and planners. The main part therefore focuses on methods and elaboration of approaches for bulk wind power production modelling and simulation primarily intended for infrastructural planning purposes, while technical/economic as well as regulatory aspects of the environment are taken into consideration. The research is carried out within the framework of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA), Joint Research Programme on Smart Grids, Transmission Planning with the main target focusing on R&D of the next generation of smart grid technologies and system development.
Why has coal been such a prominent energy source? How can renewable energies be stored most effectively? Linking science to practical applications and social issues to realistic goals, this new series orients ecologically conscious readers toward the future of Harnessing Energy. With a special section on historical moments involving the energy source, details on key inventors and notable discoveries, and statistics to back up objective reports, each title seeks to present a fully contextualized history of the featured energy form. A must-have for any STEM unit dealing with energy studies. In this title examine the ways in which wind has historically been used as an energy source and how current and future energy demands are changing its technical applications and efficiency levels.
Noise from wind turbines is a major constraining factor in the location of turbines. A recent survey in the Netherlands showed that sound was the aspect of wind turbines which led to most complaints. Investigation, understanding and reduction of noise from wind turbines is a necessary progression in the development of this sector of renewable energy. This book, authored by an international group of experts, reviewes current knowledge, providing an objective and accurate assessment of all aspects of wind turbine noise. While the primary audience for this book is the scientific regulatory and planning community, it will also be of great value to those in the wind power industry itself, the broader power supply industry, to environmental organisations, academics and others with an interest in renewable energy
The search for clean, renewable energy sources has yielded enormous growth and new developments in these technologies in a few short years, driving down costs and encouraging utilities in many nations, both developed and developing, to add and expand wind and solar power capacity. The first, best-selling edition of Wind and Solar Power Systems provided the most complete and modern treatment of renewable energy. This second edition continues the tradition by offering updated and expanded coverage of this growing field.The book begins with individual sections devoted to wind power and solar photovoltaic technologies, their engineering fundamentals, conversion characteristics, operational considerations to maximize output, and emerging trends. The discussion of wind power includes the theory of induction machine performance and operation as well as generator speed control, while the solar PV section includes array design, environmental variables, and sun-tracking methods. This edition includes two chapters devoted to new and specialized technologies. The third section explores large-scale energy storage technologies, overall electrical system performance, and total plant economy while the final section explores ancillary power systems derived from the sun.Focusing on the complete system rather than on a single component, Wind and Solar Power Systems: Design, Analysis, and Operation, Second Edition offers the most comprehensive reference to all aspects of modern renewable energy systems.
Wind and solar energy are pollution-free sources of abundant power. With renewable power generation expected to become more and more profitable with open access to transmission lines and rapid growth around the world, the design, operation, and control of alternative energy resources becomes an essential field of study. Wind and Solar Power Systems provides a comprehensive treatment of this rapidly growing segment of the power industry. It provides the fundamentals of wind and solar power generation, energy conversion and storage, and the operational aspects of power electronics and the quality of power. It covers in detail the design, operation, and control methods applicable to stand-alone as well as grid-connected power systems and discusses the present status of and the on-going research in renewable power around the world.Wind and Solar Power Systems stands as the most modern, complete book available on renewable energy. Electrical, environmental and mechanical engineering professionals along with policy-makers evaluating the renewable energy potential of their regions will find in it the background and the details they need for decision making.
As environmental concerns have focused attention on the generation of electricity from clean and renewable sources wind energy has become the world's fastest growing energy source. The Wind Energy Handbook draws on the authors' collective industrial and academic experience to highlight the interdisciplinary nature of wind energy research and provide a comprehensive treatment of wind energy for electricity generation. Features include: An authoritative overview of wind turbine technology and wind farm design and development In-depth examination of the aerodynamics and performance of land-based horizontal axis wind turbines A survey of alternative machine architectures and an introduction to the design of the key components Description of the wind resource in terms of wind speed frequency distribution and the structure of turbulence Coverage of site wind speed prediction techniques Discussions of wind farm siting constraints and the assessment of environmental impact The integration of wind farms into the electrical power system, including power quality and system stability Functions of wind turbine controllers and design and analysis techniques With coverage ranging from practical concerns about component design to the economic importance of sustainable power sources, the Wind Energy Handbook will be an asset to engineers, turbine designers, wind energy consultants and graduate engineering students.
As the demand for energy increases, and fossil fuels continue to decrease, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment, Second Edition considers the viability of wind as an alternative renewable energy source. This book examines the wind industry from its start in the 1970s until now, and introduces all aspects of wind energy. The phenomenal growth of wind power for utilities is covered along with applications such as wind-diesel, village power, telecommunications, and street lighting.. It covers the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, turbulence, wind resource, wind turbine types, and designs and performance. The text discusses the measurement and siting of individual wind turbines, and considers the development and economic impact of wind farms. What’s New in the Second Edition: Expands the section on distributed wind Adds new sections on global warming, community wind, and storage Illustrates the need for a shift to renewable energy through discussions on energy use and the order of magnitude estimates for the lifetime of fossil fuels Discusses the interconnection of wind turbines to utility grids, regulations on installation and operation, and environmental concerns This book provides material on statistics, installation, types, and energy data, as well as new information, applications, and updates on the wind industry. It serves as a resource for practicing professionals in the wind energy industry, and can be used by undergraduate and graduate students in energy engineering/environmental engineering/wind technology.
While covering the fascinating history of wind power as a whole, this timely handbook focuses on current technological developments and the promise―and pitfalls―of wind energy as part of the world's energy future.• Serves as a comprehensive introduction to the topic and a guide for further study• Features expert essays on issues and controversies related to the use of wind energy• Covers the dangers wind power poses to wildlife as well as its impacts on communities' economic development• Profiles key individuals and organizations in the field• Includes statistical information on the production and consumption of wind energy in the United States and around the world
Unlike conventional power plants, wind plants emit no air pollutants or greenhouse gases―and wind energy is a free, renewable resource. However, the induction machines commonly used as wind generators have stability problems similar to the transient stability of synchronous machines. To minimize power, frequency, and voltage fluctuations caused by network faults or random wind speed variations, control mechanisms are necessary. Wind Energy Systems: Solutions for Power Quality and Stabilization clearly explains how to solve stability and power quality issues of wind generator systems. Covering fundamental concepts of wind energy conversion systems, the book discusses several means to enhance the transient stability of wind generator systems. It also explains the methodologies for minimizing fluctuations of power, frequency, and voltage. Topics covered include: An overview of wind energy and wind energy conversion systems Fundamentals of electric machines and power electronics Types of wind generator systems Challenges in integrating wind power into electricity grids Solutions for power quality problems Methods for improving transient stability during network faults Methods for minimizing power fluctuations of variable-speed wind generator systems This accessible book helps researchers and engineers understand the relative effectiveness of each method and select a suitable tool for wind generator stabilization. It also offers students an introduction to wind energy conversion systems, providing insights into important grid integration and stability issues.