Wind Energy: An Introduction covers wind energy system types, operation, modeling, analysis, integration, and control. Beginning with a history of the development of wind energy, this comprehensive book: Explains the aerodynamic theories that govern the operation of wind turbines Presents wind energy statistics to address the stochastic nature of wind speed Employs the statistical modeling of wind speed to evaluate sites for wind energy generation Highlights the differences between the most common types of wind turbines Analyzes the main power electronic circuits used in wind energy Details the induction, synchronous, and permanent magnet generators from the basic principle of induced voltage to the steady-state and dynamic models Explores the operation, stability, control, and protection of type 1, 2, 3, and 4 wind turbines Discusses the main integration challenges of wind energy systems with electric utility systems Features numerous models, illustrations, real-world examples, and exercise problems Includes a solutions manual and figure slides with qualifying course adoption Wind Energy: An Introduction requires a basic knowledge of electric circuit theory, making it an ideal text for students at the senior-undergraduate and graduate levels. In addition, the book provides practicing engineers with a handy professional reference.
Part of The Art and Science of Wind Power series Experts agree that the wind energy industry is at the leading edge of a global movement away from fossil fuel dependence. Wind energy has evolved dramatically over the last few decades, and the demand for skilled workers is booming. Wind Energy is a cornerstone text for novice learners entering the field. The text provides an overview of the history, basic concepts, costs, and uses of wind energy. Wind Energy focuses on technical and contextual issues related to wind-energy conversion and applications of various wind-turbine systems. About the Series According to estimates from the American Wind Energy Association, approximately 85,000 Americans are employed in the rapidly expanding wind energy industry. The Art and Science of Wind Power series was developed to address a critical gap in educational resources directed toward the development of skilled workers in this industry. Each title uses a systems-based perspective to provide students with the resources to develop creative solutions to challenges as well as systems-based critical thinking skills. No other series as comprehensively addresses key issues for novice and expert learners alike.
Our planets weather offers some incredible solutions to our growing energy needs, and one of those solutions is wind power. Offshore and onshore wind farms are an increasingly familiar sight in many countries around the world. Wind farms tap into this clean, sustainable, and renewable form of energy. Find out how wind power works, where in the world it is being used, and how this green energy supply could be one answer to the energy problems that face us today.
Grid Integration and Dynamic Impact of Wind Energy details the integration of wind energy resources to the electric grid worldwide. Authors Vijay Vittal and Raja Ayyanar include detailed coverage of the power converters and control used in interfacing electric machines and power converters used in wind generators, and extensive descriptions of power systems operation and control to accommodate large penetration of wind resources.Key concepts will be illustrated through extensive power electronics and power systems simulations using software like MATLAB, Simulink and PLECS. The book addresses real world problems and solutions in the area of grid integration of wind resources, and will be a valuable resource for engineers and researchers working in renewable energy and power.
Why has coal been such a prominent energy source? How can renewable energies be stored most effectively? Linking science to practical applications and social issues to realistic goals, this new series orients ecologically conscious readers toward the future of Harnessing Energy. With a special section on historical moments involving the energy source, details on key inventors and notable discoveries, and statistics to back up objective reports, each title seeks to present a fully contextualized history of the featured energy form. A must-have for any STEM unit dealing with energy studies. In this title examine the ways in which wind has historically been used as an energy source and how current and future energy demands are changing its technical applications and efficiency levels.
Energy: Wind: The History of Wind Energy, Electricity Generation from the Wind, Types of Wind Turbines, Wind Energy Potential,
Since early recorded history, people have been harnessing the energy of the wind. In the United States in the late 19th century, settlers began using windmills to pump water for farms and ranches, and later, to generate electricity for homes and industry. Industrialism led to a gradual decline in the use of windmills. The steam engine replaced European water-pumping windmills, and in the 1930s, the Rural Electrification Administration's programs brought inexpensive electric power to most rural areas in the US. However, industrialization also sparked the development of larger windmills, wind turbines, to generate electricity. After experiencing strong growth in the mid-1980s, the U.S. wind industry hit a plateau during the electricity restructuring period in the 1990s and then regained momentum in 1999. Industry growth has since responded positively to policy incentives. Although wind power currently provides only about 1% of U.S. electricity needs, it is growing more rapidly than any other energy source. Wind power has negligible fuel costs, but high capital costs. The estimated average cost per unit incorporates the cost of construction of the turbine and transmission facilities, borrowed funds, return to investors (including cost of risk), estimated annual production, and other components, averaged over the projected useful life of the equipment, which may be in excess of twenty years. Modern wind turbines fall into two basic groups: the horizontal-axis variety and the vertical-axis design. Utility-scale turbines range in size from 100 kilowatts to as large as several megawatts. Larger turbines are grouped together into wind farms which provide bulk power to the electrical grid. Single small turbines (below 100 kilowatts) are used for homes, telecommunications dishes, or water pumping. Small turbines are sometimes used in connection with diesel generators, batteries, and photovoltaic systems. These systems are called hybrid wind systems and are typically used in remote, off-grid locations where a connection to the utility grid is not available. A key challenge for wind energy is that electricity production depends on when winds blow rather than when consumers need power. Wind's variability can create added expenses and complexity in balancing supply and demand on the grid. Recent studies imply that these integration costs do not become significant (5%-10% of wholesale prices) until wind turbines account for 15%-30% of the capacity in a given control area. Opposition to wind power arises for environmental, aesthetic, or aviation security reasons. New public-private partnerships have been established to address more comprehensively problems with avian (bird and bat) deaths resulting from wind farms. Some stakeholders oppose the construction of wind plants for visual reasons, especially in pristine or highly-valued areas. Wind technology has improved significantly over the past two decades, and wind energy has become increasingly competitive with other power generation options. Federal wind power policy has centered primarily on the production tax credit (PTC), a business incentive to operate wind facilities. The PTC was extended through 2013. While wind energy still depends on federal tax incentives to compete, key uncertainties like climate policy, fossil fuel prices, and technology progress could dominate future cost competitiveness. Full Table of Contents, Sample Sections, and additional resources are available on the book's web site: www.TCNWind.com
The offshore wind sector’s trend towards larger turbines, bigger wind farm projects and greater distance to shore has a critical impact on grid connection requirements for offshore wind power plants. This important reference sets out the fundamentals and latest innovations in electrical systems and control strategies deployed in offshore electricity grids for wind power integration. Includes: All current and emerging technologies for offshore wind integration and trends in energy storage systems, fault limiters, superconducting cables and gas-insulated transformers Protection of offshore wind farms illustrating numerous system integration and protection challenges through case studies Modelling of doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) and full-converter wind turbines structures together with an explanation of the smart grid concept in the context of wind farms Comprehensive material on power electronic equipment employed in wind turbines with emphasis on enabling technologies (HVDC, STATCOM) to facilitate the connection and compensation of large-scale onshore and offshore wind farms Worked examples and case studies to help understand the dynamic interaction between HVDC links and offshore wind generation Concise description of the voltage source converter topologies, control and operation for offshore wind farm applications Companion website containing simulation models of the cases discussed throughout Equipping electrical engineers for the engineering challenges in utility-scale offshore wind farms, this is an essential resource for power system and connection code designers and pratitioners dealing with integation of wind generation and the modelling and control of wind turbines. It will also provide high-level support to academic researchers and advanced students in power and renewable energy as well as technical and research staff in transmission and distribution system operators and in wind turbine and electrical equipment manufacturers.
Due to the mounting demand for energy and increasing population of the world, switching from nonrenewable fossil fuels to other energy sources is not an option―it is a necessity. Focusing on a cost-effective option for the generation of electricity, Wind Energy: Renewable Energy and the Environment covers all facets of wind energy and wind turbines. The book begins by outlining the history of wind energy, before providing reasons to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy. After examining the characteristics of wind, such as shear, power potential, and turbulence, it discusses the measurement and siting of individual wind turbines and wind farms. The text then presents the aerodynamics, operation, control, applications, and types of wind turbines. The author also describes the design of wind turbines and system performance for single wind turbines, water pumping, village systems, and wind farms. In addition, he explores the wind industry from its inception in the 1970s to today as well as the political and economic factors regarding the adoption of wind as an energy source. Since energy cannot be created nor destroyed―only transformed to another form―we are not encountering an energy crisis. Rather, we face an energy dilemma in the use of finite energy resources and their effects on the environment, primarily due to the burning of fossil fuels. Wind Energy explores one of the most economical solutions to alleviate our energy problems.
Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems: An Introduction to Theory, Modeling with MATLAB/SIMULINK, and the Role of Soft Computing Techniques (Green Energy and Technology)
This textbook starts with a review of the principles of operation, modeling and control of common solar energy and wind-power generation systems before moving on to discuss grid compatibility, power quality issues and hybrid models of Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). MATLAB/SIMULINK models of fuel cell technology and associated converters are discussed in detail. The impact of soft computing techniques such as neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms in the context of solar and wind energy is explained with practical implementation using MATLAB/SIMULINK models.This book is intended for final year undergraduate, post-graduate and research students interested in understanding the modeling and control of Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems based on MATLAB/SIMULINK.- Each chapter includes “Learning Objectives” at the start, a “Summary” at the end and helpful Review Questions- Includes MATLAB/SIMULINK models of different control strategies for power conditioning units in the context of Solar PV- Presents soft computing techniques for Solar PV and WECS, as well as MATLAB/SIMULINK models, e.g. for wind turbine topologies and grid integration- Covers hybrid solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems with converters and MATLAB/SIMULINK models- Reviews harmonic reduction in Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems in connection with power quality issues- Covers fuel cells and converters with implementation using MATLAB/SIMULINK
Wind Turbines addresses all those professionally involved in research, development, manufacture and operation of wind turbines. It provides a cross-disciplinary overview of modern wind turbine technology and an orientation in the associated technical, economic and environmental fields. It is based on the author's experience gained over decades designing wind energy converters with a major industrial manufacturer and, more recently, in technical consulting and in the planning of large wind park installations, with special attention to economics. The second edition accounts for the emerging concerns over increasing numbers of installed wind turbines. In particular, an important new chapter has been added which deals with offshore wind utilisation. All advanced chapters have been extensively revised and in some cases considerably extended
As environmental concerns have focused attention on the generation of electricity from clean and renewable sources wind energy has become the world's fastest growing energy source. The Wind Energy Handbook draws on the authors' collective industrial and academic experience to highlight the interdisciplinary nature of wind energy research and provide a comprehensive treatment of wind energy for electricity generation. Features include: An authoritative overview of wind turbine technology and wind farm design and development In-depth examination of the aerodynamics and performance of land-based horizontal axis wind turbines A survey of alternative machine architectures and an introduction to the design of the key components Description of the wind resource in terms of wind speed frequency distribution and the structure of turbulence Coverage of site wind speed prediction techniques Discussions of wind farm siting constraints and the assessment of environmental impact The integration of wind farms into the electrical power system, including power quality and system stability Functions of wind turbine controllers and design and analysis techniques With coverage ranging from practical concerns about component design to the economic importance of sustainable power sources, the Wind Energy Handbook will be an asset to engineers, turbine designers, wind energy consultants and graduate engineering students.
This book provides a state-of-the-art review of floating offshore wind turbines (FOWT). It offers developers a global perspective on floating offshore wind energy conversion technology, documenting the key challenges and practical solutions that this new industry has found to date. Drawing on a wide network of experts, it reviews the conception, early design stages, load & structural analysis and the construction of FOWT. It also presents and discusses data from pioneering projects. Written by experienced professionals from a mix of academia and industry, the content is both practical and visionary. As one of the first titles dedicated to FOWT, it is a must-have for anyone interested in offshore renewable energy conversion technologies.
Noise from wind turbines is a major constraining factor in the location of turbines. A recent survey in the Netherlands showed that sound was the aspect of wind turbines which led to most complaints. Investigation, understanding and reduction of noise from wind turbines is a necessary progression in the development of this sector of renewable energy. This book, authored by an international group of experts, reviewes current knowledge, providing an objective and accurate assessment of all aspects of wind turbine noise. While the primary audience for this book is the scientific regulatory and planning community, it will also be of great value to those in the wind power industry itself, the broader power supply industry, to environmental organisations, academics and others with an interest in renewable energy
Presents an overview on the different aspects of the energy value chain and discusses the issues that future energy is facing This book covers energy and the energy policy choices which face society. The book presents easy-to-grasp information and analysis, and includes statistical data for energy production, consumption and simple formulas. Among the aspects considered are: science, technology, economics and the impact on health and the environment. In this new edition two new chapters have been added: The first new chapter deals with unconventional fossil fuels, a resource which has become very important from the economical point of view, especially in the United States. The second new chapter presents the applications of nanotechnology in the energy domain. Provides a global vision of available and potential energy sources Discusses advantages and drawbacks to help prepare current and future generations to use energy differently Includes new chapters covering unconventional fossil fuels and nanotechnology as new energy Our Energy Future: Resources, Alternatives and the Environment, Second Edition, is written for professionals, students, teachers, decision-makers and politicians involved in the energy domain and interested in environmental issues.
Designed to support interactive teaching and computer assisted self-learning, this second edition of Electrical Energy Conversion and Transport is thoroughly updated to address the recent environmental effects of electric power generation and transmission, which have become more important together with the deregulation of the industry. New content explores different power generation methods, including renewable energy generation (solar, wind, fuel cell) and includes new sections that discuss the upcoming Smart Grid and the distributed power generation using renewable energy generation, making the text essential reading material for students and practicing engineers.
Wind energy is a rapidly growing and the demand for trained technicians is high. WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGY, is a comprehensive and well illustrated book on the theory and operations of wind turbines that generate electricity for power companies. This book is written as an introduction to wind energy technology. It prepares readers for a career as wind energy technicians who are responsible for maintaining, servicing and troubleshooting turbines on wind farms. This is an inclusive book that covers the main subjects associated with wind turbines. Dr. Hemami uses a practical, step-by-step manner with many examples and applications to help you to have a better understanding of the material. The book is divided into 17 progressive chapters. The book is divided into progressive sections, starting with fundamental subjects such as energy in the wind and effect of wind on a blade and continues onto more advanced materials such as grid connection and economics of wind turbines.
This authoritative textbook is intended to provide both a thorough and highly accessible introduction to the cross-disciplinary field of wind engineering. The economic viability and political appeal of wind power is on the increase, making this text a timely addition to the literature. * Developed to complement the increasing number of renewable/wind energy courses now available * End-of-chapter tutorial sections (solutions manual available) * Combines both academic and industrial experience giving the text a dual market appeal * Comprehensive coverage spans every aspect of wind energy engineering
Growing energy demand and environmental consciousness have re-evoked human interest in wind energy. As a result, wind is the fastest growing energy source in the world today. Policy frame works and action plans have already been for- lated at various corners for meeting at least 20 per cent of the global energy - mand with new-renewables by 2010, among which wind is going to be the major player. In view of the rapid growth of wind industry, Universities, all around the world, have given due emphasis to wind energy technology in their undergraduate and graduate curriculum. These academic programmes attract students from diver- fied backgrounds, ranging from social science to engineering and technology. Fundamentals of wind energy conversion, which is discussed in the preliminary chapters of this book, have these students as the target group. Advanced resource analysis tools derived and applied are beneficial to academics and researchers working in this area. The Wind Energy Resource Analysis (WERA) software, provided with the book, is an effective tool for wind energy practitioners for - sessing the energy potential and simulating turbine performance at prospective sites.