A highly accessible and authoritative account of wind energy’s scientific background, current technology, and international status, with an emphasis on large turbines and wind farms, both onshore and offshore Topics covered include: a brief history of wind energy the nature of the wind turbine aerodynamics, mechanics, and electrics wind farms offshore opportunities and challenges grid integration of wind energy economic and environmental aspects Whilst intellectually rigorous, this is not an academic treatise. Key equations are fully discussed, providing essential theoretical background. The text is supported by copious illustrations and about 50 inspiring full-colour photographs from around the world. This book is aimed at a wide readership including professionals, policy makers and employees in the energy sector in need of a basic appreciation of the underlying principles of wind energy or a quick update. Its style and level will also appeal to second and third year undergraduate and postgraduate students of renewable and wind energy, energy systems and electrical/electronic engineering. It also gives a concise account of the technology for the large and growing number of people who are interested in onshore and offshore wind farms and the contribution they are making to carbon-free electricity generation in the 21st century.
The book covers all the major aspects of wind energy conversion technology. In contrast with other publications on this subject, the author gives due emphasis to wind resource analysis and its economic aspects. The subject is treated from its basics and gradually developed to the advanced level. Such a treatment caters the needs of readers with different subject backgrounds. Each section is discussed with illustrative examples and practical problems. An extensive bibliography is appended to each chapter to give further guidance to the readers.
Best practices for the design and operation of energy systems Written by a global expert with 50 years of experience in the field, Energy Systems Design and Operation presents a formal, unified, and universal method for conceiving, designing, and operating the most appropriate energy system in any given situation. This authoritative guide describes how to express the scientific, technical, and economic parameters of an energy system in universal terms, and then reliably conduct its engineering and evaluation in those terms. The book also includes the algorithm and functional specification of the computer program for the unified method, application techniques, and software examples with source code. Learn how to: Develop a plan for adopting a unified method for energy systems Gather and process required information Formalize a procedure for the conversion, exchange, and storage of energy Extend the formal procedure to a unified method for the concept, design, and operation of energy systems Meet requirements for computing with a unified method Use and benefit from a unified method with real-world demonstrations of energy system operation and design Simulate and optimize energy systems with the unified method
Wind Turbines addresses all those professionally involved in research, development, manufacture and operation of wind turbines. It provides a cross-disciplinary overview of modern wind turbine technology and an orientation in the associated technical, economic and environmental fields. It is based on the author's experience gained over decades designing wind energy converters with a major industrial manufacturer and, more recently, in technical consulting and in the planning of large wind park installations, with special attention to economics. The second edition accounts for the emerging concerns over increasing numbers of installed wind turbines. In particular, an important new chapter has been added which deals with offshore wind utilisation. All advanced chapters have been extensively revised and in some cases considerably extended
Provides simplified MATLAB codes for analysis of photovoltaic systems, describes the model of the whole photovoltaic power system, and shows readers how to build these models line by line. This book presents simplified coded models for photovoltaic (PV) based systems using MATLAB to help readers understand the dynamic behavior of these systems. Through the use of MATLAB, the reader has the ability to modify system configuration, parameters and optimization criteria. Topics covered include energy sources, storage, and power electronic devices. This book contains six chapters that cover systems’ components from the solar source to the end-user. Chapter 1 discusses modelling of the solar source, and Chapter 2 discusses modelling of the photovoltaic source. Chapter 3 focuses on modeling of PV systems’ power electronic features and auxiliary power sources. Modeling of PV systems’ energy flow is examined in Chapter 4, while Chapter 5 discusses PV systems in electrical power systems. Chapter 6 presents an application of PV system models in systems’ size optimization. Common control methodologies applied to these systems are also modeled. Covers the basic models of the whole photovoltaic power system, enabling the reader modify the models to provide different sizing and control methodologies Examines auxiliary components to photovoltaic systems, including wind turbines, diesel generators, and pumps Contains examples, drills and codes Modeling of Photovoltaic Systems Using MATLAB: Simplified Green Codes is a reference forresearchers, students, and engineers who work in the field of renewable energy, and specifically in photovoltaic systems.
Unlike conventional power plants, wind plants emit no air pollutants or greenhouse gases―and wind energy is a free, renewable resource. However, the induction machines commonly used as wind generators have stability problems similar to the transient stability of synchronous machines. To minimize power, frequency, and voltage fluctuations caused by network faults or random wind speed variations, control mechanisms are necessary. Wind Energy Systems: Solutions for Power Quality and Stabilization clearly explains how to solve stability and power quality issues of wind generator systems. Covering fundamental concepts of wind energy conversion systems, the book discusses several means to enhance the transient stability of wind generator systems. It also explains the methodologies for minimizing fluctuations of power, frequency, and voltage. Topics covered include: An overview of wind energy and wind energy conversion systems Fundamentals of electric machines and power electronics Types of wind generator systems Challenges in integrating wind power into electricity grids Solutions for power quality problems Methods for improving transient stability during network faults Methods for minimizing power fluctuations of variable-speed wind generator systems This accessible book helps researchers and engineers understand the relative effectiveness of each method and select a suitable tool for wind generator stabilization. It also offers students an introduction to wind energy conversion systems, providing insights into important grid integration and stability issues.
Energy: Wind: The History of Wind Energy, Electricity Generation from the Wind, Types of Wind Turbines, Wind Energy Potential,
Since early recorded history, people have been harnessing the energy of the wind. In the United States in the late 19th century, settlers began using windmills to pump water for farms and ranches, and later, to generate electricity for homes and industry. Industrialism led to a gradual decline in the use of windmills. The steam engine replaced European water-pumping windmills, and in the 1930s, the Rural Electrification Administration's programs brought inexpensive electric power to most rural areas in the US. However, industrialization also sparked the development of larger windmills, wind turbines, to generate electricity. After experiencing strong growth in the mid-1980s, the U.S. wind industry hit a plateau during the electricity restructuring period in the 1990s and then regained momentum in 1999. Industry growth has since responded positively to policy incentives. Although wind power currently provides only about 1% of U.S. electricity needs, it is growing more rapidly than any other energy source. Wind power has negligible fuel costs, but high capital costs. The estimated average cost per unit incorporates the cost of construction of the turbine and transmission facilities, borrowed funds, return to investors (including cost of risk), estimated annual production, and other components, averaged over the projected useful life of the equipment, which may be in excess of twenty years. Modern wind turbines fall into two basic groups: the horizontal-axis variety and the vertical-axis design. Utility-scale turbines range in size from 100 kilowatts to as large as several megawatts. Larger turbines are grouped together into wind farms which provide bulk power to the electrical grid. Single small turbines (below 100 kilowatts) are used for homes, telecommunications dishes, or water pumping. Small turbines are sometimes used in connection with diesel generators, batteries, and photovoltaic systems. These systems are called hybrid wind systems and are typically used in remote, off-grid locations where a connection to the utility grid is not available. A key challenge for wind energy is that electricity production depends on when winds blow rather than when consumers need power. Wind's variability can create added expenses and complexity in balancing supply and demand on the grid. Recent studies imply that these integration costs do not become significant (5%-10% of wholesale prices) until wind turbines account for 15%-30% of the capacity in a given control area. Opposition to wind power arises for environmental, aesthetic, or aviation security reasons. New public-private partnerships have been established to address more comprehensively problems with avian (bird and bat) deaths resulting from wind farms. Some stakeholders oppose the construction of wind plants for visual reasons, especially in pristine or highly-valued areas. Wind technology has improved significantly over the past two decades, and wind energy has become increasingly competitive with other power generation options. Federal wind power policy has centered primarily on the production tax credit (PTC), a business incentive to operate wind facilities. The PTC was extended through 2013. While wind energy still depends on federal tax incentives to compete, key uncertainties like climate policy, fossil fuel prices, and technology progress could dominate future cost competitiveness. Full Table of Contents, Sample Sections, and additional resources are available on the book's web site: www.TCNWind.com
Among renewable sources wind power systems have developed to prominent s- pliers of electrical energy. Since the 1980s they have seen an exponential increase, both in unit power ratings and overall capacity. While most of the systems are found on dry land, preferably in coastal regions, off-shore wind parks are expected to add signi?cantly to wind energy conversion in the future. The theory of modern wind turbines has not been established before the 20th century. Currently wind turbines with three blades and horizontal shaft prevail. The drivenelectricgeneratorsareoftheasynchronousorsynchronoustype,withorwi- out interposed gearbox. Modern systems are designed for variable speed operation which make power electronic devices play an important part in wind energy conv- sion. Manufacturing has reached the state of a high-tech industry. Countries prominent for the amount of installed wind turbine systems feeding into the grid are in Europe Denmark, Germany and Spain. Outside Europe it is the United States of America and India who stand out with large rates of increase. The market and the degree of contribution to the energy consumption in a country has been strongly in?uenced by National support schemes, such as guaranteed feed-in tariffs or tax credits. Due to the personal background of the author, the view is mainly directed on Europe, and many examples are taken from the German scene. However, the sit- tion in other continents, especially North America and Asia is also considered.
This book provides a state-of-the-art review of floating offshore wind turbines (FOWT). It offers developers a global perspective on floating offshore wind energy conversion technology, documenting the key challenges and practical solutions that this new industry has found to date. Drawing on a wide network of experts, it reviews the conception, early design stages, load & structural analysis and the construction of FOWT. It also presents and discusses data from pioneering projects. Written by experienced professionals from a mix of academia and industry, the content is both practical and visionary. As one of the first titles dedicated to FOWT, it is a must-have for anyone interested in offshore renewable energy conversion technologies.
This compelling saga recounts the human effort to capture the power of the wind for electricity--from the first European windmills, to nineteenth century experiments in rural electrification, to the immense wind farms in California and the plains states that feed power grid today.Environmental historian Robert W. Righter describes eccentric inventors and techinical innovations, analyzes the politics of the power industry, past and present, and demonstrates that individuals and small businesses have made the greatest contributions to wind-energy development. Wind Energy in America also focuses on contemporary developments, including U.S. government research and regulation and the international race for dominance in the wind-turbine business. Righter explores the arguments of people and organizations opposed to the spread of wind generators--often the same environmental groups, paradoxically, that hailed wind energy as a savior in the late 1970s.This abundantly illustrated history, free of ideology and cant, will be of lasting interest to environmentalists, scholars, and all readers alert to the need for alternatives to coal and oil.
Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems: An Introduction to Theory, Modeling with MATLAB/SIMULINK, and the Role of Soft Computing Techniques (Green Energy and Technology)
This textbook starts with a review of the principles of operation, modeling and control of common solar energy and wind-power generation systems before moving on to discuss grid compatibility, power quality issues and hybrid models of Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). MATLAB/SIMULINK models of fuel cell technology and associated converters are discussed in detail. The impact of soft computing techniques such as neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms in the context of solar and wind energy is explained with practical implementation using MATLAB/SIMULINK models.This book is intended for final year undergraduate, post-graduate and research students interested in understanding the modeling and control of Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems based on MATLAB/SIMULINK.- Each chapter includes “Learning Objectives” at the start, a “Summary” at the end and helpful Review Questions- Includes MATLAB/SIMULINK models of different control strategies for power conditioning units in the context of Solar PV- Presents soft computing techniques for Solar PV and WECS, as well as MATLAB/SIMULINK models, e.g. for wind turbine topologies and grid integration- Covers hybrid solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems with converters and MATLAB/SIMULINK models- Reviews harmonic reduction in Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems in connection with power quality issues- Covers fuel cells and converters with implementation using MATLAB/SIMULINK
This book describes the design and field experimentation of real-world multi-megawatt wind turbines and their control systems. It introduces the main topics of modern wind turbine design and control, including (1) the description of classical and advanced turbines, (2) dynamic modeling, (3) control objectives and strategies, (4) standards and certification, (5) controller design, and (6) a large number of applications like onshore and offshore wind turbines, floating wind turbines, airborne wind energy systems, advanced manufacturing and real experimentation. The book also presents the main concepts of the QFT robust control engineering technique in such a manner that students and practicing engineers can readily grasp the fundamentals and appreciate its transparency in bridging the gap between theory and the real world. It addresses state-of-the-art of QFT methods to design control systems for multi-input multi-output applications, distributed parameter systems, and a hybrid methodology to design non-linear robust control systems able to go beyond the classical linear limitations. The book presents many examples and projects with the QFT Control Toolbox (or QFTCT) for Matlab developed by Prof. Garcia-Sanz (See also the website codypower.com).
While covering the fascinating history of wind power as a whole, this timely handbook focuses on current technological developments and the promise―and pitfalls―of wind energy as part of the world's energy future.• Serves as a comprehensive introduction to the topic and a guide for further study• Features expert essays on issues and controversies related to the use of wind energy• Covers the dangers wind power poses to wildlife as well as its impacts on communities' economic development• Profiles key individuals and organizations in the field• Includes statistical information on the production and consumption of wind energy in the United States and around the world
Examines the possible societal impacts of wind energy projects and explains the potential issues faced when siting, constructing, and operating a wind energy project. This book begins with a history of wind power and the social impacts of both electricity and wind power from a historical perspective, a discussion of basic electrical terms, and a primer on the conversion of power in the wind to electricity. Much of the second half of the book is devoted to comparing wind energy to other forms of electric generation, both renewable and non-renewable sources. In order to have a true understanding of the impact of wind energy on society, one also has to have a thorough understanding of the impacts that other sources of electric generation have, such as fossil-fuelled plants or nuclear power plants. The comparison of electric generation sources includes a review of how such sources are typically utilized within the electric system, as well as the economic factors and environmental considerations that affect which resources utilities or operators of electric grids have to take into account. The authors conclude with a discussion of energy policies in the U.S., individual states, and foreign nations, how these policies influence the use of renewable energy, and what our future may hold in terms of energy supply and demand. Some highlights of this book are: Discusses the wind energy impacts on the environment, local economy, electric utilities, individuals and communities Provides a visual explanation of wind energy principles through tables, graphs, maps, illustrations and photographs Offers a comprehensive overview of the issues associated with the creation and use of wind energy Models chapters around an existing university curriculum Spanning the broad range of environmental, financial, policy and other topics that define and determine the relationships between wind energy technology and our energy-dependent society, Wind Energy Essentials is a resource for students, universities, and the entire wind energy industry.
Presents an overview on the different aspects of the energy value chain and discusses the issues that future energy is facing This book covers energy and the energy policy choices which face society. The book presents easy-to-grasp information and analysis, and includes statistical data for energy production, consumption and simple formulas. Among the aspects considered are: science, technology, economics and the impact on health and the environment. In this new edition two new chapters have been added: The first new chapter deals with unconventional fossil fuels, a resource which has become very important from the economical point of view, especially in the United States. The second new chapter presents the applications of nanotechnology in the energy domain. Provides a global vision of available and potential energy sources Discusses advantages and drawbacks to help prepare current and future generations to use energy differently Includes new chapters covering unconventional fossil fuels and nanotechnology as new energy Our Energy Future: Resources, Alternatives and the Environment, Second Edition, is written for professionals, students, teachers, decision-makers and politicians involved in the energy domain and interested in environmental issues.
Wind Energy Meteorology: Atmospheric Physics for Wind Power Generation (Green Energy and Technology)
An introduction to the meteorological boundary conditions for power generation from onshore and offshore wind, this book reviews the derivation of wind laws and wind profile descriptions, and discusses the efficiency of large wind parks and their wakes.
Our planets weather offers some incredible solutions to our growing energy needs, and one of those solutions is wind power. Offshore and onshore wind farms are an increasingly familiar sight in many countries around the world. Wind farms tap into this clean, sustainable, and renewable form of energy. Find out how wind power works, where in the world it is being used, and how this green energy supply could be one answer to the energy problems that face us today.
The content of the Work is aimed at the topical issue - integration of increasing infeed of wind power into a power system, in particular its impact on the transmission networks and electricity market. In power system development horizons where forward-looking planning tasks are formed, proper instruments that are able to assess those impacts in progressive stages, comprehensive understanding of the impacts on the entire system operation, electricity markets as well as generating and transmission infrastructural requirements are indispensable for proper decisions of policy makers and planners. The main part therefore focuses on methods and elaboration of approaches for bulk wind power production modelling and simulation primarily intended for infrastructural planning purposes, while technical/economic as well as regulatory aspects of the environment are taken into consideration. The research is carried out within the framework of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA), Joint Research Programme on Smart Grids, Transmission Planning with the main target focusing on R&D of the next generation of smart grid technologies and system development.